James Joyce was
born in Dublin. His Father was John Stanislaus Joyce, a poor man, his mother was Mary Jane Murray was a pianist. Since Joyce
was six he was educated by Jesuits at Clongowes Wood College, at Clane, and then at Belvedere College in Dublin. In 1898 he
entered the University College, Dublin, where he where he was influenced by Henrik Ibsen’ St. Thomas Aquinas and W.B. Yeats. In 1900, Joyce began to write lyric poems. After graduation in 1902,
he left to Paris and worked as a journalist. After Joyce’s mother died, Joyce started traveling again. He left Dublin
in 1904 with Nora Barnacle, whom he married and lived in Pola, Austria-Hungary, and in Trieste.
period in Trieste Joyce wrote most of DUBLINERS (1914), all of A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, the
play, EXILES (1918), and large sections of Ulysses. Joyce had two children Giorgio and Lucia. Joyce and Nora
remained together even when Joyce fell in love with Anny Schleimer, the daughter of an Austrian banker. In 1907 Joyce published Chamber Music a collection of poems, it is believed that the title referred to the sound
of urine tinkling into a prostitute's chamber pot. Many of the poems were later made into songs. In 1909 Joyce tried to open
a movie theater but it failed and he returned to Trieste, without money
and working as a teacher. In 1912 he left to Ireland, trying to convince Maunsel & Co to fulfill their agreement to publish
Dubliners. The work included several short stories about ordinary people dealing with changes and maturity. He became
friends with Ezra Pound, and she began to market his writing. In 1916 he published Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man,
an autobiographical novel from which only a section of the original copy has survived. Then in Zurich Joyce started to build
up Ulysses, which was first published in France, and then was later published in 1933 in the United States and Britain.
From 1917 to 1930
Joyce suffered many eye operations, wich caused him to be blind for short periods at a time.
1923 Joyce began his second most important work in Paris, Finnegans Wake, while he was suffering from glaucoma. This
piece took sixteen years being done in 1938. The first copy was presented in his birthday in 1939. Lucia, his daughter collaborated
in 1927 in the making of "Poems Penyeach" by creating some of the illistrations. In
the 1930s she was diagnosed to have schizophrenia at the Burghölz psychiatric clinic in Zurich. Lucia died in a mental hospital
in Northampton, England, in 1982.After the defeat of France in World War II, Joyce went to Zürich, where he died on January
13, 1941. Finnegans Wake was the last and most radical work Joyce had done. Some consider it to be exceptional, though
others readers find it very difficult to understand.